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SmartGrids / edited by Nouredine Hadjsaïd, Jean-Claude Sabonnadière.

Contributor(s): Hadjsaïd, Nouredine | Sabonnadière, Jean-Claude.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookSeries: ISTE: Publisher: London : Hoboken, NJ : ISTE ; Wiley, 2012Description: 1 online resource (xix, 358 pages) : illustrations.Content type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9781118562703; 1118562704; 9781118562895; 1118562895.Subject(s): Smart power grids | TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING -- Power Resources -- Electrical | Smart power gridsGenre/Form: Electronic books.Additional physical formats: Print version:: SmartGrids.DDC classification: 333.793/2 Online resources: Wiley Online Library
Contents:
SmartGrids: Motivation, Stakes and Perspectives / Nouredine Hadjsaïd and Jean-Claude Sabonnadiere -- Introduction -- The new energy paradigm -- Information and communication technologies serving the electrical system -- Integration of advanced technologies -- The European energy perspective -- Shift to electricity as an energy carrier (vector) -- Main triggers of the development of SmartGrids -- Definitions of SmartGrids -- Objectives addressed by the SmartGrid concept -- Specific case of transmission grids -- Specific case of distribution grids -- The desired development of distribution networks: towards smarter grids -- Socio-economic and environmental objectives -- Stakeholders involved the implementation of the SmartGrid concept -- Research and scientific aspects of the SmartGrid -- Examples of the development of innovative concepts -- Scientific, technological, commercial and sociological challenges.
Preparing the competences needed for the development of SmartGrids -- Conclusion -- Bibliography -- From the SmartGrid to the Smart Customer: the Paradigm Shift / Catherine Failliet -- Key trends -- The crisis -- Environmental awareness -- New technologies -- The evolution of the individual's relationship to energy -- Curiosity -- The need for transparency -- Responsibility -- The historical model of energy companies -- Incumbents in a natural monopoly -- A clear focus on technical knowledge -- Undeveloped customer relationships -- SmartGrids from the customer's point of view -- The first step: the data revolution -- The second step: the establishment of a smart ecosystem -- The consumers' reluctance -- What about possible business models? -- An unprecedented global buzz and the search for a business model -- Government research into a virtuous model of regulation -- An opening for new stakeholders -- Bibliography.
Transmission Grids: Stakeholders in SmartGrids / Herve Mignon -- A changing energy context: the development of renewable energies -- A changing energy context: new modes of consumption -- New challenges -- An evolving transmission grid -- Conclusion -- Bibliography -- SmartGrids and Energy Management Systems / Jean-Louis Coullon -- Introduction -- Managing distributed production resources: renewable energies -- Characterization of distributed renewable production -- Integrating renewable energies into the management process -- Demand response -- Development of storage, microgrids and electric vehicles -- New storage methods -- Microgrids -- Electric vehicles -- Managing high voltage direct current connections -- Grid reliability analysis -- Model-based stability analysis -- Continuous measurements-based analysis: phasor measurement units -- Dynamic limits -- Self-healing grids -- Smart asset management.
Smart grid rollout: regulatory needs -- The need for pilot projects -- Incentives for investment in grid reliability -- Renewables -- Investment incentives for energy efficiency -- Cost/profit allocation -- New regulatory frameworks -- Standards -- The case of smart grids -- Work in progress -- Cooperation -- System architecture items -- Broaden the vision -- Taking vertical changes into consideration -- Developing integration tools -- Acknowledgements -- Bibliography -- The Distribution System Operator at the Heart of the SmartGrid Revolution / Pierre Mallet -- Brief overview of some of the general elements of electrical distribution grids -- The current changes: toward greater complexity -- Smart grids enable the transition to carbon-free energy -- The different constituents of SmartGrids -- Smart Life -- Smart Operation -- Smart Metering -- The Linky project -- New services for customers.
Smart meters can significantly modernize grid management -- Smart Services -- Smart local optimization -- Distributed generation -- Active management of demand -- Means of distributed storage -- New uses including electric vehicles -- Local optimization of the system -- The distributor ERDF is at the heart of future SmartGrids -- Bibliography -- Architecture, Planning and Reconfiguration of Distribution Grids / Bertrand Raison -- Introduction -- The structure of distribution grids -- High voltage/medium voltage delivery stations -- Meshed and looped grids -- Types of conductor -- Underground/overhead -- MV/LV substations -- Planning of the distribution grids -- Principles of planning/engineering -- All criteria to be met by the proposed architectures -- Example on a secured feeder grid -- Long-term and short-term planning -- The impact of connecting DGs on the MV grid structure -- Increasing the DG insertion rate in the grid.
Proposal for a new looped architecture: the hybrid structure -- Reconfiguration for the reduction of power losses -- The problem of copper losses -- Mathematic formulation of the optimization problem -- Combinatorial optimization -- Different approaches to finding the optimal configuration -- Reconfiguration of the partially meshed grids -- Bibliography -- Energy Management and Decision-aiding Tools / Tran-Quoc Tuan -- Introduction -- Voltage control -- Introduction to voltage control in distribution networks -- Voltage control in current distribution networks -- Voltage control in distribution networks with dispersed generation -- Voltage control conclusion -- Protection schemes -- MV protection scheme -- Neutral grounding modes -- Fault characteristics -- Power outages -- Impact of decentralized production on the operation of protections of the feeder -- Reconfiguration after a fault: results of the INTEGRAL project.
Goals of the INTEGRAL project -- Demonstrator description -- General self-healing principles -- Some results -- Reliability -- Basic concepts of the Monte Carlo simulation -- Conclusion on reliability -- Bibliography -- Integration of Vehicles with Rechargeable Batteries into Distribution Networks / George Gross -- The revolution of individual electrical transport -- An increasingly credible technology -- Example: the Fluence ZE -- What are the consequences on the electrical network? -- Demand management and vehicle-to-grid -- Vehicles as "active loads" -- Energetic services -- Frequency regulation -- Load reserve and shedding -- Other services -- Economic impacts -- A potentially lucrative but limited market -- New business models -- Market integration -- Environmental impacts -- Synergy with intermittent sources -- Energetic efficiency -- Other advantages.
Evaluating environmental impacts -- Technological challenges -- Architecture -- Communication infrastructure -- Control strategy -- Feedback -- Uncertainty factors -- Electric vehicle adoption -- Viability of demand management -- Technological factors -- Economic factors -- Conclusion -- Bibliography -- How Information and Communication Technologies Will Shape SmartGrids / Gilles Privat -- Introduction -- Control decentralization -- Why smart grids will not be "intelligent networks" -- From the "home area network" to the "smart home grid": extension of the local data network to the electrical grid for the home -- The "smart home grid" for the local optimization of energy efficiency -- From the home to microgrids: towards the autonomous control of subnetworks -- Interoperability and connectivity -- "Utility computing": when the electrical grid is a model for information technologies -- Avatars of connectivity, when moving up from the physical layer to information models.
From synchronism to asynchronism -- Absolute and relative low-level and top-level synchronism -- From asynchronous data to asynchronous electricity -- From data packets to energy packets -- Future Internet for SmartGrids -- Towards a shared infrastructure for SmartGrids and physical networks: sensors -- Towards a shared infrastructure: SmartGrids in the cloud -- Conclusion -- Bibliography -- Information Systems in the Metering and Management of the Grid / Herve Barancourt -- Introduction -- Classification of the information systems -- Approach -- The metering information system -- Presentation of the metering system.
Architecture of the metering system -- The manipulated data -- The deployment of a metering system -- Information system metering in the management of the grid -- Links with IS management of the distribution network -- The SmartGrid triptych -- Conclusion: urbanization of the metering system -- Two approaches -- The "pro'sumer's" information -- Summary -- Bibliography -- Smart Meters and SmartGrids: an Economic Approach / Jacques Percebois -- "Demand response": a consequence of opening the electricity industry and the rise in environmental concerns -- The specific features of electricity -- The impact of introducing competition.
The impact of the objectives for reducing CO2 emissions -- Traditional regulation via pricing is no longer sufficient to avoid the risk of "failure" during peaks -- Coping with failures -- Expensive advanced means reduces the incentive to invest -- Emphasizing the seasonal differentiation of prices -- Smart meters: a tool for withdrawal and market capacity -- Towards a market of withdrawal -- Who is financing the installation of the meters? -- What are the economic results of the operation? -- From smart meters to SmartGrids-the results -- Bibliography -- The Regulation of SmartGrids / Didier Laffaille -- The regulation and funding of SmartGrids -- Must R & D expenditure be submitted to an incentive mechanism? -- How to cope with the deployment costs of SmartGrids?
Which investments will be supported by transmission tariffs and to what extent? -- Should cooperation be established? -- Regulation and economic models -- Evolution of the value chain -- How will the energy and ICT sectors work together? -- What will be the role of consumers and new players in the value chain? -- The emergence of a business model for smart grids -- Do we need an energy regulatory framework to enhance the deployment of SmartGrids within Europe? -- What variation is there in France? -- Regulation can assist in the emergence of SmartGrids -- How to ensure that system operators will account for public interest in their investment decisions? -- The Linky smart meter -- How to finance investments in SmartGrids? -- Which energy regulatory framework should be used to encourage efficient investments in the SmartGrids?
What kind of development in prices would be acceptable for the consumer? -- How else can the energy regulator facilitate the development of a SmartGrid system? -- The business models are yet to be created -- The standardization of SmartGrids -- Why is standardization an essential factor in efficiently developing the electrical system? -- Is standardization a response to the need for interoperability in SmartGrids? -- What standardization efforts are being made for SmartGrids in Europe? -- Is standardization an important commercial issue for the European sector? -- Conclusion -- Bibliography.
Summary: On a worldwide basis, the development of SmartGrids is a consistent answer to the problem of an efficient and sustainable delivery of electric energy through distribution grids. SmartGrids are a combination of information and communication technologies and new energy technologies. There are many different definitions of the concept of SmartGrids and thus it appears indispensable to gather the knowledge available from both industry and research laboratories in one book. Distributed generation is rightly receiving an increased amount of attention and will become an integral part of urban ener.
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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 SmartGrids: Motivation, Stakes and Perspectives / Nouredine Hadjsaïd and Jean-Claude Sabonnadiere -- 1.1. Introduction -- 1.1.1. The new energy paradigm -- 1.2. Information and communication technologies serving the electrical system -- 1.3. Integration of advanced technologies -- 1.4. The European energy perspective -- 1.5. Shift to electricity as an energy carrier (vector) -- 1.6. Main triggers of the development of SmartGrids -- 1.7. Definitions of SmartGrids -- 1.8. Objectives addressed by the SmartGrid concept -- 1.8.1. Specific case of transmission grids -- 1.8.2. Specific case of distribution grids -- 1.8.3. The desired development of distribution networks: towards smarter grids -- 1.9. Socio-economic and environmental objectives -- 1.10. Stakeholders involved the implementation of the SmartGrid concept -- 1.11. Research and scientific aspects of the SmartGrid -- 1.11.1. Examples of the development of innovative concepts -- 1.11.2. Scientific, technological, commercial and sociological challenges.

1.12. Preparing the competences needed for the development of SmartGrids -- 1.13. Conclusion -- 1.14. Bibliography -- ch. 2 From the SmartGrid to the Smart Customer: the Paradigm Shift / Catherine Failliet -- 2.1. Key trends -- 2.1.1. The crisis -- 2.1.2. Environmental awareness -- 2.1.3. New technologies -- 2.2. The evolution of the individual's relationship to energy -- 2.2.1. Curiosity -- 2.2.2. The need for transparency -- 2.2.3. Responsibility -- 2.3. The historical model of energy companies -- 2.3.1. Incumbents in a natural monopoly -- 2.3.2. A clear focus on technical knowledge -- 2.3.3. Undeveloped customer relationships -- 2.4. SmartGrids from the customer's point of view -- 2.4.1. The first step: the data revolution -- 2.4.2. The second step: the establishment of a smart ecosystem -- 2.4.3. The consumers' reluctance -- 2.5. What about possible business models? -- 2.5.1. An unprecedented global buzz and the search for a business model -- 2.5.2. Government research into a virtuous model of regulation -- 2.5.3. An opening for new stakeholders -- 2.6. Bibliography.

Ch. 3 Transmission Grids: Stakeholders in SmartGrids / Herve Mignon -- 3.1. A changing energy context: the development of renewable energies -- 3.2. A changing energy context: new modes of consumption -- 3.3. New challenges -- 3.4. An evolving transmission grid -- 3.5. Conclusion -- 3.6. Bibliography -- ch. 4 SmartGrids and Energy Management Systems / Jean-Louis Coullon -- 4.1. Introduction -- 4.2. Managing distributed production resources: renewable energies -- 4.2.1. Characterization of distributed renewable production -- 4.2.2. Integrating renewable energies into the management process -- 4.3. Demand response -- 4.4. Development of storage, microgrids and electric vehicles -- 4.4.1. New storage methods -- 4.4.2. Microgrids -- 4.4.3. Electric vehicles -- 4.5. Managing high voltage direct current connections -- 4.6. Grid reliability analysis -- 4.6.1. Model-based stability analysis -- 4.6.2. Continuous measurements-based analysis: phasor measurement units -- 4.6.3. Dynamic limits -- 4.6.4. Self-healing grids -- 4.7. Smart asset management.

4.8. Smart grid rollout: regulatory needs -- 4.8.1. The need for pilot projects -- 4.8.2. Incentives for investment in grid reliability -- 4.8.3. Renewables -- 4.8.4. Investment incentives for energy efficiency -- 4.8.5. Cost/profit allocation -- 4.8.6. New regulatory frameworks -- 4.9. Standards -- 4.9.1. The case of smart grids -- 4.9.2. Work in progress -- 4.9.3. Cooperation -- 4.10. System architecture items -- 4.10.1. Broaden the vision -- 4.10.2. Taking vertical changes into consideration -- 4.10.3. Developing integration tools -- 4.11. Acknowledgements -- 4.12. Bibliography -- ch. 5 The Distribution System Operator at the Heart of the SmartGrid Revolution / Pierre Mallet -- 5.1. Brief overview of some of the general elements of electrical distribution grids -- 5.2. The current changes: toward greater complexity -- 5.3. Smart grids enable the transition to carbon-free energy -- 5.4. The different constituents of SmartGrids -- 5.5. Smart Life -- 5.6. Smart Operation -- 5.7. Smart Metering -- 5.7.1. The Linky project -- 5.7.2. New services for customers.

5.7.3. Smart meters can significantly modernize grid management -- 5.8. Smart Services -- 5.9. Smart local optimization -- 5.9.1. Distributed generation -- 5.9.2. Active management of demand -- 5.9.3. Means of distributed storage -- 5.9.4. New uses including electric vehicles -- 5.9.5. Local optimization of the system -- 5.10. The distributor ERDF is at the heart of future SmartGrids -- 5.11. Bibliography -- ch. 6 Architecture, Planning and Reconfiguration of Distribution Grids / Bertrand Raison -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. The structure of distribution grids -- 6.2.1. High voltage/medium voltage delivery stations -- 6.2.2. Meshed and looped grids -- 6.2.3. Types of conductor -- 6.2.4. Underground/overhead -- 6.2.5. MV/LV substations -- 6.3. Planning of the distribution grids -- 6.3.1. Principles of planning/engineering -- 6.3.2. All criteria to be met by the proposed architectures -- 6.3.3. Example on a secured feeder grid -- 6.3.4. Long-term and short-term planning -- 6.3.5. The impact of connecting DGs on the MV grid structure -- 6.3.6. Increasing the DG insertion rate in the grid.

6.3.7. Proposal for a new looped architecture: the hybrid structure -- 6.4. Reconfiguration for the reduction of power losses -- 6.4.1. The problem of copper losses -- 6.4.2. Mathematic formulation of the optimization problem -- 6.4.3. Combinatorial optimization -- 6.4.4. Different approaches to finding the optimal configuration -- 6.4.5. Reconfiguration of the partially meshed grids -- 6.5. Bibliography -- ch. 7 Energy Management and Decision-aiding Tools / Tran-Quoc Tuan -- 7.1. Introduction -- 7.2. Voltage control -- 7.2.1. Introduction to voltage control in distribution networks -- 7.2.2. Voltage control in current distribution networks -- 7.2.3. Voltage control in distribution networks with dispersed generation -- 7.2.4. Voltage control conclusion -- 7.3. Protection schemes -- 7.3.1. MV protection scheme -- 7.3.2. Neutral grounding modes -- 7.3.3. Fault characteristics -- 7.3.4. Power outages -- 7.3.5. Impact of decentralized production on the operation of protections of the feeder -- 7.4. Reconfiguration after a fault: results of the INTEGRAL project.

7.4.1. Goals of the INTEGRAL project -- 7.4.2. Demonstrator description -- 7.4.3. General self-healing principles -- 7.4.4. Some results -- 7.5. Reliability -- 7.5.1. Basic concepts of the Monte Carlo simulation -- 7.5.2. Conclusion on reliability -- 7.6. Bibliography -- ch. 8 Integration of Vehicles with Rechargeable Batteries into Distribution Networks / George Gross -- 8.1. The revolution of individual electrical transport -- 8.1.1. An increasingly credible technology -- 8.1.2. Example: the Fluence ZE -- 8.1.3. What are the consequences on the electrical network? -- 8.1.4. Demand management and vehicle-to-grid -- 8.2. Vehicles as "active loads" -- 8.2.1. Energetic services -- 8.2.2. Frequency regulation -- 8.2.3. Load reserve and shedding -- 8.2.4. Other services -- 8.3. Economic impacts -- 8.3.1. A potentially lucrative but limited market -- 8.3.2. New business models -- 8.3.3. Market integration -- 8.4. Environmental impacts -- 8.4.1. Synergy with intermittent sources -- 8.4.2. Energetic efficiency -- 8.4.3. Other advantages.

8.4.4. Evaluating environmental impacts -- 8.5. Technological challenges -- 8.5.1. Architecture -- 8.5.2. Communication infrastructure -- 8.5.3. Control strategy -- 8.5.4. Feedback -- 8.6. Uncertainty factors -- 8.6.1. Electric vehicle adoption -- 8.6.2. Viability of demand management -- 8.6.3. Technological factors -- 8.6.4. Economic factors -- 8.7. Conclusion -- 8.8. Bibliography -- ch. 9 How Information and Communication Technologies Will Shape SmartGrids / Gilles Privat -- 9.1. Introduction -- 9.2. Control decentralization -- 9.2.1. Why smart grids will not be "intelligent networks" -- 9.2.2. From the "home area network" to the "smart home grid": extension of the local data network to the electrical grid for the home -- 9.2.3. The "smart home grid" for the local optimization of energy efficiency -- 9.2.4. From the home to microgrids: towards the autonomous control of subnetworks -- 9.3. Interoperability and connectivity -- 9.3.1. "Utility computing": when the electrical grid is a model for information technologies -- 9.3.2. Avatars of connectivity, when moving up from the physical layer to information models.

9.4. From synchronism to asynchronism -- 9.4.1. Absolute and relative low-level and top-level synchronism -- 9.4.2. From asynchronous data to asynchronous electricity -- 9.4.3. From data packets to energy packets -- 9.5. Future Internet for SmartGrids -- 9.5.1. Towards a shared infrastructure for SmartGrids and physical networks: sensors -- 9.5.2. Towards a shared infrastructure: SmartGrids in the cloud -- 9.6. Conclusion -- 9.7. Bibliography -- ch. 10 Information Systems in the Metering and Management of the Grid / Herve Barancourt -- 10.1. Introduction -- 10.1.1. Classification of the information systems -- 10.1.2. Approach -- 10.2. The metering information system -- 10.2.1. Presentation of the metering system.

Note continued: 10.2.2. Architecture of the metering system -- 10.2.3. The manipulated data -- 10.2.4. The deployment of a metering system -- 10.3. Information system metering in the management of the grid -- 10.3.1. Links with IS management of the distribution network -- 10.3.2. The SmartGrid triptych -- 10.4. Conclusion: urbanization of the metering system -- 10.4.1. Two approaches -- 10.4.2. The "pro'sumer's" information -- 10.4.3. Summary -- 10.5. Bibliography -- ch. 11 Smart Meters and SmartGrids: an Economic Approach / Jacques Percebois -- 11.1. "Demand response": a consequence of opening the electricity industry and the rise in environmental concerns -- 11.1.1. The specific features of electricity -- 11.1.2. The impact of introducing competition.

11.1.3. The impact of the objectives for reducing CO2 emissions -- 11.2. Traditional regulation via pricing is no longer sufficient to avoid the risk of "failure" during peaks -- 11.2.1. Coping with failures -- 11.2.2. Expensive advanced means reduces the incentive to invest -- 11.2.3. Emphasizing the seasonal differentiation of prices -- 11.3. Smart meters: a tool for withdrawal and market capacity -- 11.3.1. Towards a market of withdrawal -- 11.3.2. Who is financing the installation of the meters? -- 11.3.3. What are the economic results of the operation? -- 11.4. From smart meters to SmartGrids-the results -- 11.5. Bibliography -- ch. 12 The Regulation of SmartGrids / Didier Laffaille -- 12.1. The regulation and funding of SmartGrids -- 12.1.1. Must R & D expenditure be submitted to an incentive mechanism? -- 12.1.2. How to cope with the deployment costs of SmartGrids?

12.1.3. Which investments will be supported by transmission tariffs and to what extent? -- 12.1.4. Should cooperation be established? -- 12.2. Regulation and economic models -- 12.3. Evolution of the value chain -- 12.3.1. How will the energy and ICT sectors work together? -- 12.3.2. What will be the role of consumers and new players in the value chain? -- 12.4. The emergence of a business model for smart grids -- 12.4.1. Do we need an energy regulatory framework to enhance the deployment of SmartGrids within Europe? -- 12.4.2. What variation is there in France? -- 12.5. Regulation can assist in the emergence of SmartGrids -- 12.5.1. How to ensure that system operators will account for public interest in their investment decisions? -- 12.5.2. The Linky smart meter -- 12.5.3. How to finance investments in SmartGrids? -- 12.5.4. Which energy regulatory framework should be used to encourage efficient investments in the SmartGrids?

12.5.5. What kind of development in prices would be acceptable for the consumer? -- 12.5.6. How else can the energy regulator facilitate the development of a SmartGrid system? -- 12.6. The business models are yet to be created -- 12.7. The standardization of SmartGrids -- 12.7.1. Why is standardization an essential factor in efficiently developing the electrical system? -- 12.7.2. Is standardization a response to the need for interoperability in SmartGrids? -- 12.7.3. What standardization efforts are being made for SmartGrids in Europe? -- 12.7.4. Is standardization an important commercial issue for the European sector? -- 12.8. Conclusion -- 12.9. Bibliography.

Print version record.

On a worldwide basis, the development of SmartGrids is a consistent answer to the problem of an efficient and sustainable delivery of electric energy through distribution grids. SmartGrids are a combination of information and communication technologies and new energy technologies. There are many different definitions of the concept of SmartGrids and thus it appears indispensable to gather the knowledge available from both industry and research laboratories in one book. Distributed generation is rightly receiving an increased amount of attention and will become an integral part of urban ener.

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